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Posted on 20th Jul at 12:00 AM, with 1 note
Richard Cavendish explains how the proposal to change the name of Siam to Thailand was eventually accepted on May 11th, 1949.

On July 20th, 1948, the Siamese constituent assembly voted to change the name of Siam to Thailand, the change to come into effect the following year. Muang Thai or Thailand means ‘land of the free’ and the name had been changed before, in 1939 under the fascist military dictatorship of Field Marshal Luang Phibunsongkhram, but the anti-Axis powers refused to recognise the new name after Siam allied herself with the Japanese and in 1942 declared war on the United States and the United Kingdom.

Phibun and his nationalist supporters in Siam took the Japanese side, partly because it initially looked like the winning one, partly because they hoped to recover long-lost territory in Laos, Cambodia and Burma, and partly because of their profound hostility to the Chinese in Thailand. They had already restricted Chinese immigration, closed hundreds of Chinese schools and shut down Chinese newspapers. In any case, when the Japanese late in 1941 demanded free passage across Thailand to invade Malaya and attack Singapore, the Thais were in no position to resist.

As the war went on, however, and it became clear that the country had picked the losing side, the resources of Thai diplomacy were skilfully marshalled to make the country’s peace with the Allies while taking care not to offend the Japanese unduly. Phibun’s regime ended in 1944. After the war the United States decided that the Thai regime had acted under duress and no objection was raised to the change of name. Phibun returned to power in 1948 and his hostility to Communist China now put him in an altogether better light with the Western powers. He lasted until 1957, when his military cronies decided they had had quite enough of him and sent him packing. He retired to Japan and lived in Tokyo until his death in 1964.

Posted on 13th Jul at 12:00 AM, with 157 notes
indiohistorian:

Reflections on the Bangsamoro
Decades in the making, the conflict in the southern parts of Mindanao was born of centuries old problems inherited from our Spanish colonizers in their tactic of divide-and-conquer.  They say that if the Spanish interregnum did not occur, we would have all been Muslim. That is true, for when the Spaniards arrived, most of the powerful polities in Mindanao, and the rulers in Manila were all Muslim. But unlike the Spaniards who used the power of the cross and the sword, the Islamic conversions were mainly for economic reasons, since most of the merchant partners of the datus were Muslim—and Islam then was a very missional (albeit, progressive) religion.  It was here that when the Spaniards saw the strong sultanates of Mindanao and how they stubbornly refused to be subjugated, the Spaniards began calling these people collectively as “Moro,” a term (unbeknownst to most Filipinos today) that hails from the long history of Spanish ethnic cleansing in their Iberian peninsula, when in their Reconquista, they defeated all the Muslim emirates in Spain and tried to erase from their historical memory the enlightened Muslim Moorish heritage that built the beautiful palaces of the kingdoms of Toledo, Cordoba and Granada. It was just logical that the Spanish conquistadors would choose the term “Moro” to refer to all Muslims in Filipinas, who they would call negatively as juramentados.
The term Moro with its loaded meaning unfortunately caught up with our history as down through the ages, from the American imperialist experiment in the Philippines to the time of Filipino politicians, these collective peoples in Mindanao, marginalized, alienated and misunderstood, even fellow Filipinos would call them Moros. It was time then that the peoples themselves used the term in a positive light, an expression of their self-determination and sovereignty as peoples of a shared identity and historical circumstance. They began calling themselves “Bangsa Moro” or the Moro nation. Which is why it is so controversial and promising that the same term would be used in the territory that used to be the ARMM. That’s what makes today’s event, the signing of the Comprehensive Agreement of the Bangsamoro, so significant.
As Muslim mothers and warriors cried in Malacanang in tears of joy, the whole weight of history hangs on us. For the first time in Philippine history, a marginalized people who for the longest time fought for their right to self-determination, exasperated, even adhering to secession from the Philippines, was listened to, acknowledged, and promoted with dignity. A silenced people has been given a voice they can call their own. It is an experiment that has been carefully studied, with all the stakeholders having their own say on their shared destiny. For as Leon Ma. Guerrero said when referring to Rizal’s vision of the Filipino Nation, it must be an entity that is not Spanish, nor Catholic, but that which shares “mutual responsibility” and “respect.” Finally the longest conflict in Southeast Asia is ended. We pray for its success and for the peace and healing of the lands wounded by war and despair.
Together with the rest of the Filipino Nation, on this momentous occasion, we rejoice with our Muslim brothers, acknowledging our faults and weaknesses, and offering our hand of peace, for we are all, in God’s eyes, Filipinos.
Cheers to the Bangsamoro and for the lasting peace in Mindanao!
(Infographic, courtesy of GMA News)
View high resolution

indiohistorian:

Reflections on the Bangsamoro

Decades in the making, the conflict in the southern parts of Mindanao was born of centuries old problems inherited from our Spanish colonizers in their tactic of divide-and-conquer.  They say that if the Spanish interregnum did not occur, we would have all been Muslim. That is true, for when the Spaniards arrived, most of the powerful polities in Mindanao, and the rulers in Manila were all Muslim. But unlike the Spaniards who used the power of the cross and the sword, the Islamic conversions were mainly for economic reasons, since most of the merchant partners of the datus were Muslim—and Islam then was a very missional (albeit, progressive) religion.  It was here that when the Spaniards saw the strong sultanates of Mindanao and how they stubbornly refused to be subjugated, the Spaniards began calling these people collectively as “Moro,” a term (unbeknownst to most Filipinos today) that hails from the long history of Spanish ethnic cleansing in their Iberian peninsula, when in their Reconquista, they defeated all the Muslim emirates in Spain and tried to erase from their historical memory the enlightened Muslim Moorish heritage that built the beautiful palaces of the kingdoms of Toledo, Cordoba and Granada. It was just logical that the Spanish conquistadors would choose the term “Moro” to refer to all Muslims in Filipinas, who they would call negatively as juramentados.

The term Moro with its loaded meaning unfortunately caught up with our history as down through the ages, from the American imperialist experiment in the Philippines to the time of Filipino politicians, these collective peoples in Mindanao, marginalized, alienated and misunderstood, even fellow Filipinos would call them Moros. It was time then that the peoples themselves used the term in a positive light, an expression of their self-determination and sovereignty as peoples of a shared identity and historical circumstance. They began calling themselves “Bangsa Moro” or the Moro nation. Which is why it is so controversial and promising that the same term would be used in the territory that used to be the ARMM. That’s what makes today’s event, the signing of the Comprehensive Agreement of the Bangsamoro, so significant.

As Muslim mothers and warriors cried in Malacanang in tears of joy, the whole weight of history hangs on us. For the first time in Philippine history, a marginalized people who for the longest time fought for their right to self-determination, exasperated, even adhering to secession from the Philippines, was listened to, acknowledged, and promoted with dignity. A silenced people has been given a voice they can call their own. It is an experiment that has been carefully studied, with all the stakeholders having their own say on their shared destiny. For as Leon Ma. Guerrero said when referring to Rizal’s vision of the Filipino Nation, it must be an entity that is not Spanish, nor Catholic, but that which shares “mutual responsibility” and “respect.” Finally the longest conflict in Southeast Asia is ended. We pray for its success and for the peace and healing of the lands wounded by war and despair.

Together with the rest of the Filipino Nation, on this momentous occasion, we rejoice with our Muslim brothers, acknowledging our faults and weaknesses, and offering our hand of peace, for we are all, in God’s eyes, Filipinos.

Cheers to the Bangsamoro and for the lasting peace in Mindanao!

(Infographic, courtesy of GMA News)

Posted on 10th Jul at 12:00 AM, with 266 notes
writing-system:

Baybayin ScriptAncient pre-colonial Philippine writing system13th–19th Century
Source
View high resolution

writing-system:

Baybayin Script
Ancient pre-colonial 
Philippine writing system
13th–19th Century

Source

Posted on 10th Jul at 12:00 AM, with 24 notes

gardant:

Learn to Read Baybayin

Hey, everyone! I’m here to share this tutorial I made on learning Baybayin, an indigenous writing system of the Philippines. There are a number of online resources for this topic, but I wanted to give people an option that includes active practice and learning, instead of just staring blankly at a chart.

This tutorial covers:

  • the basic characters (titik)
  • the kudlit
  • the virama kudlit
  • punctuation
  • culture and context of Baybayin
  • reading practice in Tagalog, Bisaya, Kapampangan, and Ilocano

The tutorial is free on the Memrise website, so CLICK HERE to give it a try, and please reblog to share with anyone who might like to learn! Maraming salamat!

Posted on 5th Jul at 12:01 AM, with 372 notes
medievalpoc:

1800s Week!
aseantoo submitted to medievalpoc:

Juan Luna
Self-portrait
Italy, Rome (1879)
National Museum of the Philippines
[x]
Juan Luna y Novicio (1857 – 1899) was one of the first Filipino artists to become recognised internationally. He lived in Europe from 1877 to 1894, creating historical paintings and sculptures, even becoming a friend of the King of Spain.
In 1884, he won First Prize at the Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes in Madrid for his painting of Roman gladiators. Coincidentally, it was another Filipino painter, Félix Resurrección Hidalgo (1855-1933), who won the Second Prize! 
Their success was hailed by Filipino reformists as a sign that despite being seen as a “barbarian race”, they could paint better than the Spanish who colonised them.

Juan Luna
Spoliarium
Italy, Rome (1884)
Oil on poplar
National Museum of the Philippines
[x]

Félix Resurrección Hidalgo
The Christian Virgins Exposed to the Populace / Las virgenes Cristianas expuestas al populacho
Spain (1884)
Metropolitan Museum of the Philippines
[x]

medievalpoc:

1800s Week!

aseantoo submitted to medievalpoc:

Juan Luna

Self-portrait

Italy, Rome (1879)

National Museum of the Philippines

[x]

Juan Luna y Novicio (1857 – 1899) was one of the first Filipino artists to become recognised internationally. He lived in Europe from 1877 to 1894, creating historical paintings and sculptures, even becoming a friend of the King of Spain.

In 1884, he won First Prize at the Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes in Madrid for his painting of Roman gladiators. Coincidentally, it was another Filipino painter, Félix Resurrección Hidalgo (1855-1933), who won the Second Prize! 

Their success was hailed by Filipino reformists as a sign that despite being seen as a “barbarian race”, they could paint better than the Spanish who colonised them.

Juan Luna

Spoliarium

Italy, Rome (1884)

Oil on poplar

National Museum of the Philippines

[x]

Félix Resurrección Hidalgo

The Christian Virgins Exposed to the Populace / Las virgenes Cristianas expuestas al populacho

Spain (1884)

Metropolitan Museum of the Philippines

[x]

Posted on 4th Jul at 12:00 AM, with 1,563 notes
thecivilwarparlor:

A HERO HISTORY FORGOT
FILIPINO SOLDIER SERVED IN THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
Cornelius Balderry— He belonged to Company A, 11th Michigan Volunteers
Balderry passed away on August 18, 1895 of tuberculosis at the age of 49.
http://pinoyhistory.proboards.com/thread/8
http://adenu1980.blogspot.com/2011_05_01_archive.html
View high resolution

thecivilwarparlor:

A HERO HISTORY FORGOT

FILIPINO SOLDIER SERVED IN THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

Cornelius Balderry— He belonged to Company A, 11th Michigan Volunteers

Balderry passed away on August 18, 1895 of tuberculosis at the age of 49.

http://pinoyhistory.proboards.com/thread/8

http://adenu1980.blogspot.com/2011_05_01_archive.html

Posted on 30th Jun at 12:00 AM, with 2,131 notes
not-your-asian-fantasy:

Early Feminism in the PhilippinesThe Philippines has been noted as having one of the smallest gender disparities in the world. The gender gap has been closed in both health and education; the country has had two female presidents (Corazon Aquino from 1986-1992 and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo from 2001-2010); and had its first woman Supreme Court justice (Cecilia Muñoz Palma in 1973) before the United States had one (Sandra Day O’Connor in 1981). These achievements reflect a long history of efforts by women to involve themselves equally in governance as well as in society.

not-your-asian-fantasy:

Early Feminism in the Philippines

The Philippines has been noted as having one of the smallest gender disparities in the world. The gender gap has been closed in both health and education; the country has had two female presidents (Corazon Aquino from 1986-1992 and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo from 2001-2010); and had its first woman Supreme Court justice (Cecilia Muñoz Palma in 1973) before the United States had one (Sandra Day O’Connor in 1981). These achievements reflect a long history of efforts by women to involve themselves equally in governance as well as in society.

Posted on 30th Jun at 12:00 AM, with 69 notes
nitoystuff:

Filippina Maidens pose for a studio photograph. Unknown location. c1913.
View high resolution

nitoystuff:

Filippina Maidens pose for a studio photograph. Unknown location. c1913.

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