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Posted on 1st Oct at 1:37 PM, with 1 note

Three months in Southeast Asia. July in Hapao, The Philippines; August and September in Cambodia; four days in Laos.
And today I am back in California.
I know I’ll go back home again.

Posted on 1st Oct at 12:00 AM, with 29 notes
"The scale of abuses in the Philippines remains unknowable, but, as early as March, rhetoric like Root’s was being undercut by further revelations from the islands. When Major Littleton Waller, of the Marines, appeared before a court-martial in Manila that month, unprecedented public attention fell on the brutal extremities of U.S. combat, specifically on the island of Samar in late 1901. In the wake of a surprise attack by Filipino revolutionaries on American troops in the town of Balangiga, which had killed forty-eight of seventy-four members of an American Army company, Waller and his forces were deployed on a search-and-destroy mission across the island. During an ill-fated march into the island’s uncharted interior, Waller had become lost, feverish, and paranoid. Believing that Filipino guides and carriers in the service of his marines were guilty of treachery, he ordered eleven of them summarily shot. During his court-martial, Waller testified that he had been under orders from the volatile, aging Brigadier General Jacob Smith (“Hell-Roaring Jake,” to his comrades) to transform the island into a “howling wilderness,” to “kill and burn” to the greatest degree possible—“The more you kill and burn, the better it will please me”—and to shoot anyone “capable of bearing arms.”"
The Water Cure - The New Yorker (via iwriteasiwrite)
Posted on 1st Oct at 12:00 AM, with 34 notes
indiohistorian:

Yes, I’m still on Philippine-American War mode (and #Mabini150 mode too). :) This is one interesting print in the Library of Congress. The Filipino forces is seen carrying the Philippine flag of the Republic. But the flag was incorrectly portrayed: the sun is not anthropomorphic, and, at war, the red side should have been on top.
Another interesting thing to note on the print, was the sky blue hue of the blue side of the flag. This is in fact a raging debate among historians. 
Historian Ambeth Ocampo explains:

In 1955, the Heraldry Commission issued the official specification for the Philippine flag. The shade of blue given was United States Cable 70077, or navy blue. Earlier, all flags had been using navy blue. 
However, the late Domingo Abella, the Director of the National Archives and a member of the NHI [National Historical Institute] believed that the shade of blue should be light blue, because he says that at the turn of the century when the Philippine flag was finally allowed to fly and be displayed after years of suppression, flag makers didn’t have a supply of light blue cloth. Thus, they used dark-blue cloth instead, perpetuating the mistake. 
No documentary evidence was presented by Abella and so, he was not taken seriously till the late Teodoro A. Agoncillo also supported the camp battling for the light-blue flag. E. Aguilar Cruz, another member of the NHI stated in his monograph of [Philippine revolutionary and artist] Juan Luna that he found a watercolor by Luna which showed a Philippine flag with a light-blue field. [Aguinaldo’s first Prime Minister] Apolinario Mabini in one of his letters even proposed that the blue in the flag of the Revolution be “azul celeste”, or sky blue. The navy-blue camp is supported by all extant flags having this color, plus the testimony of Marcela Agoncillo, the only surviving daughter of Marcela Agoncillo, who made the original flag which Aguinaldo waved to the crowd outside his mansion in Cavite when he declared Philippine Independence. 
However, both sides may be wrong, because in a letter to [sympathizer of the Filipino cause and friend of Jose Rizal] Ferdinand Blumentritt in 1898 [Filipino revolutionary] Mariano Ponce sent a drawing of the Philippine flag which showed that the blue is “azul oscuro” which is in between “azul celeste” (sky blue or light blue) and “azul marino” (navy or dark blue). So the blue in the flag is not sky blue but a shade lighter than the present navy blue. This caused confusion among the people. Someone mistook “lighter than the present blue” to mean sky blue, which is wrong. The issue would have ended here had Ponce kept quiet because in 1899, in one of the few letters he wrote in English, he told a Mr. Y. Fukishama, “My dear sir, I am sending you, by parcel post, one scarf pin representing our flag: please accept it as a poor souvenir. The blue color of the sky means our hope in future prosperity through progress…” 
Noted historian Carmen Guerrero Nakpil asserts that the original color was “Cuban blue”, although this assertion is itself subject to different interpretations since there isn’t an official shade for the color blue in the Cuban flag.

This raging debate on the blue hue of the flag was finally resolved in 1998, when the government chose royal blue instead of American navy blue, Cuban blue or Pale sky blue. 
pupuplatter:

"Battle of Paceo. (Manila) Feb’y 4’ & 5’ 1899. Am. Loss: Kill’d 22, W’d 145, Philip’s Over 1000," Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
View high resolution

indiohistorian:

Yes, I’m still on Philippine-American War mode (and #Mabini150 mode too). :) This is one interesting print in the Library of Congress. The Filipino forces is seen carrying the Philippine flag of the Republic. But the flag was incorrectly portrayed: the sun is not anthropomorphic, and, at war, the red side should have been on top.

Another interesting thing to note on the print, was the sky blue hue of the blue side of the flag. This is in fact a raging debate among historians. 

Historian Ambeth Ocampo explains:

In 1955, the Heraldry Commission issued the official specification for the Philippine flag. The shade of blue given was United States Cable 70077, or navy blue. Earlier, all flags had been using navy blue.

However, the late Domingo Abella, the Director of the National Archives and a member of the NHI [National Historical Institute] believed that the shade of blue should be light blue, because he says that at the turn of the century when the Philippine flag was finally allowed to fly and be displayed after years of suppression, flag makers didn’t have a supply of light blue cloth. Thus, they used dark-blue cloth instead, perpetuating the mistake.

No documentary evidence was presented by Abella and so, he was not taken seriously till the late Teodoro A. Agoncillo also supported the camp battling for the light-blue flag. E. Aguilar Cruz, another member of the NHI stated in his monograph of [Philippine revolutionary and artist] Juan Luna that he found a watercolor by Luna which showed a Philippine flag with a light-blue field. [Aguinaldo’s first Prime Minister] Apolinario Mabini in one of his letters even proposed that the blue in the flag of the Revolution be “azul celeste”, or sky blue. The navy-blue camp is supported by all extant flags having this color, plus the testimony of Marcela Agoncillo, the only surviving daughter of Marcela Agoncillo, who made the original flag which Aguinaldo waved to the crowd outside his mansion in Cavite when he declared Philippine Independence.

However, both sides may be wrong, because in a letter to [sympathizer of the Filipino cause and friend of Jose Rizal] Ferdinand Blumentritt in 1898 [Filipino revolutionary] Mariano Ponce sent a drawing of the Philippine flag which showed that the blue is “azul oscuro” which is in between “azul celeste” (sky blue or light blue) and “azul marino” (navy or dark blue). So the blue in the flag is not sky blue but a shade lighter than the present navy blue. This caused confusion among the people. Someone mistook “lighter than the present blue” to mean sky blue, which is wrong. The issue would have ended here had Ponce kept quiet because in 1899, in one of the few letters he wrote in English, he told a Mr. Y. Fukishama, “My dear sir, I am sending you, by parcel post, one scarf pin representing our flag: please accept it as a poor souvenir. The blue color of the sky means our hope in future prosperity through progress…” 

Noted historian Carmen Guerrero Nakpil asserts that the original color was “Cuban blue”, although this assertion is itself subject to different interpretations since there isn’t an official shade for the color blue in the Cuban flag.

This raging debate on the blue hue of the flag was finally resolved in 1998, when the government chose royal blue instead of American navy blue, Cuban blue or Pale sky blue. 

pupuplatter:

"Battle of Paceo. (Manila) Feb’y 4’ & 5’ 1899. Am. Loss: Kill’d 22, W’d 145, Philip’s Over 1000," Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Posted on 1st Oct at 12:00 AM, with 348 notes
historicaltimes:

American soldiers playing around with human skulls in Colon Cemetery in Havana, Cuba, c. 1900.
Read More
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historicaltimes:

American soldiers playing around with human skulls in Colon Cemetery in Havana, Cuba, c. 1900.

Read More

Posted on 1st Oct at 12:00 AM, with 22 notes

kamalayankonsciousness:

Continuing with my last post on the first shots of the Fil-Am War, here is a propaganda poem by famous English poet Rudyard Kipling.

I had long known about the phrase “white man’s burden,” but it wasn’t until I started researching Filipino history that I learned that it was coined in this poem referring to the ‘benevolent’ American attack on the Philippines.  It was so ‘benevolent’ that some estimates claim that Americans killed 1 in 8 of us.  [alex]

* * * * *

"The White Man’s Burden: The United States and The Philippine Islands"by R. Kipling (published 1899).

Take up the White Man’s burden, Send forth the best ye breed
  Go bind your sons to exile, to serve your captives’ need;
To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild—
  Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.

Take up the White Man’s burden, In patience to abide,
  To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride;
By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain
  To seek another’s profit, And work another’s gain.

Take up the White Man’s burden, The savage wars of peace—
  Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease;
And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought,
  Watch sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hopes to nought.

Take up the White Man’s burden, No tawdry rule of kings,
  But toil of serf and sweeper, The tale of common things.
The ports ye shall not enter, The roads ye shall not tread,
  Go mark[14] them with your living, And mark them with your dead.

Take up the White Man’s burden And reap his old reward:
  The blame of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard—
The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah, slowly!) toward the light:—
  ”Why brought he us from bondage, Our loved Egyptian night?”

Take up the White Man’s burden, Ye dare not stoop to less—
  Nor call too loud on Freedom To cloke your weariness;
By all ye cry or whisper, By all ye leave or do,
  The silent, sullen peoples Shall weigh your gods and you.

Take up the White Man’s burden, Have done with childish days—
  The lightly proferred laurel, The easy, ungrudged praise.
Comes now, to search your manhood, through all the thankless years
  Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers!
Posted on 1st Oct at 12:00 AM, with 41 notes
"The American government’s policy, if we examine the [1898] Treaty of Paris and its conduct towards us, Cuba and Puerto Rico, is a policy of deception. All the Americans want is to know what we want. With our intentions known, we may no longer be able to back away, even when favorable circumstances come our way. They will avoid making any promises or commitments to us so that they may skillfully use all advantages that the tides of war will bring them."

Apolinario Mabini's reply to President Emilio Aguinaldo’s letter, written in Rosales, Pangasinan, October 17, 1899.

It is a glimpse of a genius mind analyzing the 1898 Treaty of Paris between Spain and the United States, which sold the Philippines and other Spanish colonies in the Pacific to the United States for $20 million. At the moment of transaction, the Philippines have already declared itself independent from Spain, with Spanish forces utterly defeated by Filipinos. 

(via indiohistorian)

Posted on 27th Sep at 1:23 AM
Phnom Bakheng from the West Baray.
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Phnom Bakheng from the West Baray.

Posted on 27th Sep at 1:18 AM
Yeay Deb shrine in Siem Reap.
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Yeay Deb shrine in Siem Reap.

Posted on 25th Sep at 5:38 PM, with 410 notes
animus-inviolabilis:

Fasting Shakyamuni Buddha
Kushan Period, Gandhara
3rd - 5th Century
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animus-inviolabilis:

Fasting Shakyamuni Buddha

Kushan Period, Gandhara

3rd - 5th Century

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